Appendices

Appendix A. Carbon Pricing Schemes Around the World

Appendix B. Full Results

Table B-1: Revenue Share, by State (%)

State: Percent: State: Percent:
Alabama 1.90 Montana 0.46
Alaska 0.44 Nebraska 0.78
Arizona 1.91 Nevada 0.78
Arkansas 1.11 New Hampshire 0.35
California 9.38 New Jersey 2.46
Colorado 1.68 New Mexico 0.79
Connecticut 0.89 New York 4.68
Delaware 0.27 North Carolina 2.73
Florida 5.21 North Dakota 0.66
Georgia 2.87 Ohio 3.97
Hawaii 0.39 Oklahoma 1.58
Idaho 0.41 Oregon 0.97
Illinois 4.20 Pennsylvania 4.29
Indiana 2.95 Rhode Island 0.26
Iowa 1.25 South Carolina 1.45
Kansas 1.10 South Dakota 0.28
Kentucky 1.98 Tennessee 1.98
Louisiana 2.75 Texas 10.12
Maine 0.36 Utah 1.06
Maryland 1.51 Vermont 0.15
Massachusetts 1.65 Virginia 2.27
Michigan 3.07 Washington 1.78
Minnesota 1.73 West Virginia 1.20
Mississippi 1.07 Wisconsin 1.84
Missouri 2.18 Wyoming 0.70

 

 

Table B-2: Revenue and state grants in Ten Year Budget Window, by State (bn $) 1

Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total P/C2
Alabama 1.26 1.29 1.34 1.38 1.41 1.45 1.49 1.54 1.59 1.64 14.39 2,667
Alaska 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.38 3.34 4,050
Arizona 1.26 1.29 1.34 1.38 1.41 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.65 14.43 1,949
Arkansas 0.73 0.75 0.78 0.80 0.82 0.84 0.87 0.90 0.92 0.96 8.36 2,530
California 6.21 6.35 6.59 6.79 6.94 7.13 7.36 7.61 7.85 8.11 70.92 1,653
Colorado 1.11 1.14 1.18 1.22 1.24 1.28 1.32 1.36 1.41 1.45 12.70 2,158
Connecticut 0.59 0.60 0.63 0.65 0.66 0.68 0.70 0.72 0.75 0.77 6.75 1,681
Delaware 0.18 0.18 0.19 0.19 0.20 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.23 2.04 1,970
Florida 3.45 3.53 3.66 3.77 3.85 3.96 4.08 4.22 4.35 4.50 39.37 1,799
Georgia 1.90 1.95 2.02 2.08 2.13 2.18 2.25 2.33 2.40 2.48 21.73 1,947
Hawaii 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.28 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34 2.97 1,888
Idaho 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.30 0.30 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.35 3.09 1,714
Illinois 2.78 2.85 2.95 3.04 3.11 3.19 3.30 3.41 3.51 3.63 31.76 2,206
Indiana 1.96 2.00 2.07 2.14 2.18 2.24 2.32 2.39 2.47 2.55 22.32 3,041
Iowa 0.83 0.84 0.87 0.90 0.92 0.95 0.98 1.01 1.04 1.08 9.42 2,728
Kansas 0.73 0.75 0.77 0.80 0.82 0.84 0.87 0.89 0.92 0.95 8.34 2,580
Kentucky 1.31 1.34 1.39 1.44 1.47 1.51 1.56 1.61 1.66 1.71 15.00 3,054
Louisiana 1.82 1.86 1.93 1.99 2.03 2.09 2.16 2.23 2.30 2.38 20.80 4,025
Maine 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.29 0.30 0.31 2.75 1,852
Maryland 1.00 1.02 1.06 1.09 1.11 1.14 1.18 1.22 1.26 1.30 11.39 1,718
Massachusetts 1.09 1.12 1.16 1.19 1.22 1.25 1.29 1.34 1.38 1.43 12.48 1,665
Michigan 2.03 2.08 2.15 2.22 2.27 2.33 2.41 2.49 2.57 2.65 23.19 2,097
Minnesota 1.15 1.17 1.22 1.26 1.28 1.32 1.36 1.41 1.45 1.50 13.11 2,166
Mississippi 0.71 0.72 0.75 0.77 0.79 0.81 0.84 0.86 0.89 0.92 8.06 2,412
Missouri 1.44 1.47 1.53 1.58 1.61 1.65 1.71 1.77 1.82 1.88 16.46 2,439
Montana 0.30 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.38 0.40 3.47 3,063
Nebraska 0.51 0.53 0.55 0.56 0.57 0.59 0.61 0.63 0.65 0.67 5.88 2,815
Nevada 0.52 0.53 0.55 0.57 0.58 0.60 0.61 0.63 0.65 0.68 5.92 1,900
New Hampshire 0.23 0.24 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.30 2.63 1,780
New Jersey 1.63 1.66 1.73 1.78 1.82 1.87 1.93 1.99 2.05 2.12 18.58 1,868
New Mexico 0.53 0.54 0.56 0.57 0.59 0.60 0.62 0.64 0.66 0.69 6.00 2,573
New York 3.10 3.17 3.29 3.39 3.46 3.56 3.67 3.80 3.91 4.04 35.39 1,609
North Carolina 1.81 1.85 1.92 1.97 2.02 2.07 2.14 2.21 2.28 2.36 20.63 1,876
North Dakota 0.43 0.44 0.46 0.47 0.48 0.50 0.51 0.53 0.55 0.57 4.96 6,132
Ohio 2.63 2.69 2.79 2.88 2.94 3.02 3.12 3.22 3.32 3.43 30.03 2,324
Oklahoma 1.05 1.07 1.11 1.14 1.17 1.20 1.24 1.28 1.32 1.37 11.95 2,776
Oregon 0.64 0.66 0.68 0.70 0.72 0.74 0.76 0.79 0.81 0.84 7.35 1,675
Pennsylvania 2.84 2.90 3.01 3.10 3.17 3.26 3.36 3.48 3.59 3.71 32.43 2,271
Rhode Island 0.18 0.18 0.19 0.19 0.20 0.20 0.21 0.21 0.22 0.23 2.00 1,700
South Carolina 0.96 0.98 1.02 1.05 1.07 1.10 1.13 1.17 1.21 1.25 10.93 2,053
South Dakota 0.18 0.19 0.19 0.20 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.22 0.23 0.24 2.08 2,203
Tennessee 1.31 1.34 1.39 1.44 1.47 1.51 1.56 1.61 1.66 1.71 15.00 2,067
Texas 6.70 6.86 7.11 7.33 7.49 7.69 7.94 8.21 8.47 8.75 76.53 2,586
Utah 0.70 0.72 0.75 0.77 0.79 0.81 0.83 0.86 0.89 0.92 8.04 2,478
Vermont 0.10 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.13 0.13 1.16 1,659
Virginia 1.50 1.54 1.59 1.64 1.68 1.72 1.78 1.84 1.90 1.96 17.15 1,857
Washington 1.18 1.21 1.25 1.29 1.32 1.35 1.40 1.44 1.49 1.54 13.46 1,729
West Virginia 0.80 0.81 0.84 0.87 0.89 0.91 0.94 0.98 1.01 1.04 9.09 4,395
Wisconsin 1.22 1.25 1.29 1.33 1.36 1.40 1.45 1.49 1.54 1.59 13.93 2,172
Wyoming 0.46 0.47 0.49 0.51 0.52 0.53 0.55 0.57 0.58 0.60 5.28 8,114
Total to States 66.14 67.64 70.11 72.28 73.85 75.88 78.35 80.97 83.52 86.29 755.02  
Average Grant 1.32 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.48 1.52 1.57 1.62 1.67 1.73 15.10  
Total to Feds 22.16 22.66 23.49 24.22 24.75 25.42 26.25 27.13 27.98 28.91 252.99  

Table B-3: First Year Revenue Compared to Select Budget Categories, vs. 2014 budget (bn $)

 State Tax Revenue
(% of)
Education Spending
(% of)
Health Spending
(% of)
 Welfare Spending
(% of)
Highways Spending
(% of)
Total Budget (% of)
Alabama 13.60% 12.20% 241.90% 19.00% 74.80% 4.50%
Alaska 8.60% 10.60% 90.30% 13.50% 23.50% 2.30%
Arizona 9.70% 13.00% 61.90% 13.90% 71.90% 3.80%
Arkansas 8.20% 9.60% 240.00% 12.80% 53.40% 3.60%
California 4.50% 7.80% 70.30% 7.40% 49.20% 2.20%
Colorado 9.50% 11.00% 103.50% 16.60% 67.70% 3.60%
Connecticut 3.70% 8.20% 59.60% 8.20% 55.60% 2.00%
Delaware 5.60% 6.30% 40.20% 8.30% 33.60% 2.00%
Florida 9.70% 13.80% 89.60% 14.20% 52.30% 4.10%
Georgia 10.20% 10.90% 161.40% 16.20% 82.80% 4.20%
Hawaii 4.30% 7.90% 49.20% 10.10% 62.80% 2.10%
Idaho 7.40% 10.20% 151.10% 12.20% 40.50% 3.20%
Illinois 7.10% 15.70% 124.60% 13.10% 52.90% 3.60%
Indiana 11.60% 13.40% 394.50% 18.50% 80.90% 5.40%
Iowa 10.00% 12.30% 320.40% 14.90% 45.70% 3.90%
Kansas 10.00% 12.00% 164.90% 19.30% 61.40% 4.30%
Kentucky 11.80% 14.20% 184.50% 15.70% 52.60% 4.40%
Louisiana 18.80% 21.20% 364.00% 22.50% 119.70% 5.70%
Maine 6.30% 11.50% 52.40% 7.20% 41.30% 2.60%
Maryland 5.30% 8.30% 45.90% 9.20% 45.70% 2.40%
Massachusetts 4.30% 8.10% 97.60% 6.60% 49.00% 1.90%
Michigan 8.20% 8.60% 155.70% 13.00% 77.30% 3.20%
Minnesota 5.00% 7.80% 239.20% 9.20% 41.60% 2.70%
Mississippi 9.30% 12.80% 191.30% 12.10% 51.70% 3.50%
Missouri 12.80% 15.80% 88.10% 17.90% 100.50% 4.70%
Montana 11.40% 15.80% 195.60% 20.20% 41.40% 4.20%
Nebraska 10.60% 15.10% 108.60% 19.50% 69.40% 5.10%
Nevada 7.30% 11.60% 142.90% 19.10% 104.70% 3.90%
New Hampshire 10.10% 11.30% 219.50% 13.10% 44.90% 3.10%
New Jersey 5.50% 9.50% 111.10% 10.20% 45.10% 2.40%
New Mexico 9.10% 9.50% 105.10% 12.40% 74.00% 3.00%
New York 4.00% 7.50% 34.00% 5.70% 65.30% 1.70%
North Carolina 7.70% 9.50% 140.40% 14.20% 48.20% 3.50%
North Dakota 7.10% 20.40% 307.20% 41.00% 32.20% 5.80%
Ohio 9.70% 12.20% 101.00% 12.30% 70.10% 3.30%
Oklahoma 11.50% 13.90% 108.80% 16.00% 55.40% 4.50%
Oregon 6.60% 8.20% 102.80% 8.00% 49.00% 2.20%
Pennsylvania 8.30% 12.40% 96.20% 11.70% 41.40% 3.30%
Rhode Island 5.90% 8.60% 105.60% 6.90% 51.70% 2.10%
South Carolina 10.70% 11.00% 89.90% 14.40% 87.00% 3.30%
South Dakota 11.30% 14.30% 96.80% 18.50% 29.60% 4.00%
Tennessee 11.10% 13.00% 197.60% 12.00% 80.10% 4.30%
Texas 12.10% 13.30% 232.70% 20.40% 77.00% 5.10%
Utah 11.20% 10.00% 189.90% 22.40% 85.10% 4.10%
Vermont 3.40% 4.10% 30.60% 6.10% 21.50% 1.60%
Virginia 7.90% 10.10% 111.70% 14.70% 35.10% 3.10%
Washington 6.10% 7.30% 47.40% 12.10% 39.00% 2.50%
West Virginia 14.80% 18.60% 241.10% 21.40% 71.20% 6.00%
Wisconsin 7.40% 10.90% 187.40% 12.50% 49.10% 3.20%
Wyoming 20.50% 26.30% 170.40% 58.40% 88.70% 7.90%

Appendix C. Illustrative Federal Guidelines for Block Grant Spending

Permissible uses of grant funds at the state level include:

  1. Increasing spending on:
    • Health and human services
    • Education, including research and higher education
    • Public welfare
    • Law enforcement
    • Transportation
    • Infrastructure
    • Parks and recreation
    • Natural resource or environmental improvements
    • Military and veteran affairs
    • Agriculture and rural development
    • Telecommunications and information technology
  2. Increasing state employee salaries and benefits
  3. Assisting fossil energy workers and their communities
  4. Bolstering public pensions
  5. Improving unemployment benefits
  6. Grants or loans to local governments and tribal governments
  7. Deficit reduction
  8. Tax substitution or reform
  9. Contributions to state trust funds, rainy day reserve funds, or other savings
  10. Climate adaptation

Supplemental requirements:

  1. States must maintain or strengthen taxes on fossil fuels and energy use
  2. States must reduce or maintain subsidies for fossil fuels
  1. Annual and total figures in this table are given in nominal dollars. The per capita allocation is provided in present value terms (constant 2016$).
  2. P/C= Per capita allocation of funds. Absolute value.